• Energy is a word derived from Greek word Energeia. The meaning of energy is the capacity to do work basically, it exists in various forms. The forms of energy that bodies in motion possess is called kinetic energy.
  • The energy related to the position of a body is known as potential energy.
  • The energy contained in a chemical system by virtue of the motion of and force between the individual atoms and molecules of the system is called internal energy.
  • There are different other forms of energy, namely kinetic energy, potential energy, Internal energy, mechanical energy, thermal energy, chemical energy. All forms of energy are interred convertible by appropriate process.
  • Energy exists in the Earth or it comes from outer space. The energy existing in the earth is called as the capital, energy and that which comes from outer space is called as celestial or income energy. Capital energy, fossil fuels, nuclear fuel and heat traps are the example of Celestial or income energy. Electromagnetic energy, gravitational energy, potential energy of meteorites the most useful of celestial energy sources are the electromagnetic energy of the sun, called direct solar energy.
  • The gravitational energy of the moon produces tidal energy. The other sources such as wind energy, hydel energy, biofuels, etc. are derived from the direct solar energy.




  • Non- renewable resources as an energy source which has been accumulated over the gas are available in a limited amount and over a long period. Quickly exhaustible when they are exhausted. example: fossil fuels and nuclear fuels


  • The Energy sources of fossil fuels are like Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas are the remains of organisms that lives 200-500 million year ago. Which is finite in quantity, which are non- renewable and also formed inside the earth crust, heat and compression of organic matter buried underneath.


  • Coal is also known as Anthracite, bituminous and lignite depends upon the composition of fuel used for domestic cooking, industrial heating and for the production of electricity in thermal power and where it burns and produce coal.
  • About 5% of coal is found in India. Whereas Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra are coal states of India. Huge coal deposits left. Mining are uses of coal very harmful to the environment dip reduce air pollution, carbon dioxide emission (36%) and causes respiratory disease.


  • Petroleum, diesel, kerosene etc. The oil comes from the reserve oil are crude oil distillation we get oils like diesel kerosene.
  • USA, USSR and West Asian region are major oil producing countries in the world.
  • Organizations like OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) having 70% of oil reserves. Alone Saudi Arabia has 25% of oil reserves.
  • About 1.4 to 2.1 trillion barrels, mostly in the Middle East. Current gold demand in about 24 million barrels per year and is rising rapidly.


  • Natural gas is a mixture of methane, ethane, propane and butane. It is a mixture of LPG and CNG. 
  • Russia and Kazakhstan have 40% of the gas reserves
  • LPG has a propane and butane it has low cost, low pollution sometime it needs pipelines


  • 2.8% of power generation at present in atomic power to 10,000 MW as the target for nuclear power generation by 2000 A.D., there are 22 thermal power reactors in operation in India today. A nuclear power plant similar to a coal fired thermal power plant, accept the way heat is produced to raise steam. In nuclear fission, neutron hits the nucleus of an atom of the uranium fuel and splits it releasing 2 or 3 neutrons used to cause fission in other uranium atoms.
  • 1 ton of Uranium = 2.5 million tons of coal combustion. Nuclear power plants have a life of 25-30 years. As per vision 2020, NPCIL aims to produce 20,000 MW of nuclear power by 2020.



  • In hydroelectric power turbines run by flowing water, generate 35% the present power production of the country. Two thirds of the available hydroelectric potential remain untapped in India.


  • In solar energy the sunshine supplies 1600 to 2000 KWH per sq.m per year. Conversion to other useful energy forms is possible through to thermal or photovoltaic routes, using reflectors and silicon solar cells. Commercial exploitation of solar energy is still meagre. Photovoltaic cell technology can hold a good promise for realizing the solar energy. The sun is an almost inexhaustible source of energy. Sun’s heat can be directly used in the solar cookers to cook food or in solar heater to heat water. Solar cells can convert the sun’s energy directly into electricity. Causes no pollution. But only 0.5% of 1 billionth fraction of sun’s energy is intercepted by earth.
  • Using 33000 modules of photovoltaic cells, Asia’s first 5 MW solar power plant is planned for Rashtrapati Bhavan in New Delhi, India. Asia’s largest renewable energy plant is in Japan of capacity 3 MW. Brahmakumaris spiritual hub at Mount Abu, Rajasthan, India use solar energy for hot water, lights and cooking even for pumping water. They can install their own plant or a few industries together should install or they should fund solar energy based industry.


  • Windmills have a good potential as an energy source, particularly in rural areas. The mobilization of this resource at present is negligible. In 1840 itself, there were 10000 windmills in England. Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India is called ‘windy city’.


  • All existing nuclear power plants are based on nuclear fission principle. In Nuclear fusion, Heavy Hydrogen Nuclei from Helium Nucleus with release of energy as in a hydrogen bomb explosion.


  • Inexhaustible supply of energy is possible by pumping up the icy cold water from the deep sea. John Pina Craven, scientist of USA, found a temperature difference of 5 degree Celsius 1000 m depth to much warm water at 16 degree Celsius near surface. The warm water enters a vacuum chamber and is evaporates into steam that drives and electricity producing turbine. The cold water condenses the steam back into water for drinking and irrigation. Circulating the cold water also produces air conditioning.


  • Sea waves possess a lot of kinetic energy. Presently it is being used to run dynamos to generate electricity. Tidal energy the enormous movement of water around the coasts of the world between high and low tides provides a very large source of energy. The tidal energy can be trapped by a ‘ Tidal Barrage’. The difference in depth of water on either side of the barrage is used to drive turbines and produce electricity.


  • The matter originating directly or indirectly from photosynthesis is called biomass. Plant matter, biodegradable, organic wastes, combustible waste residues etc. constitute the biomass that can release heat energy on chemical or biochemical oxidation. Waste biomass energy use waste biomass like cattle dung, plant residues, crop residues, sewage etc. Wood as fuel oil products, animal dung etc. are the main biomass energy resources in India rural scene. The present annual consumption of wood as fuel is estimated at 300 million tons and is projected to touch 500 million tons by 2010 AD. Petro plants are plant species belonging to Euphobiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Apocynaceae, Urticaceae etc. Form which liquid hydrocarbon fuels can be obtained by fermentation processes.


  • Animal energy accounts for over half the energy consumed in the agricultural sector of our country, employing 70 million bullocks, 8 million buffaloes, one million horses, and one million camels, in addition to the donkeys, elephants and yaks. This animal power amounts to 30,000MW as against 40,000MW of total electrical energy. The utilization of animal power will continue for a long time to come due to the following factors
  • Cultural heritage in India involves a sentimental affinity between man and animals.
  • The mineral potential and the fuel utility of animal dung is a major economic factor.
  • The milk yield and meat are substantial nutritional resources.
  • Modernized energy systems are lagging due to paucity of funds and entrepreneurship, particularly in the rural sector.

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