ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION ACT, 1986
- The act came into force on November 19,1986, the birth anniversary of the late Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. The act is of 26 sections which applies to whole India. Environment Protection acts, was promulgated to provide the protection and improvement an environment and matters connected herewith. Section 2 defines the terms like environment, environmental pollution, hazardous substance.
- Whereas an environmental protection issues in our country. Some terms related to the environment have been described the Act as follows
- Environment includes land, water, air and the inter-relationships that exists among between them and human beings, all other living creatures, plants, microorganisms on property.
- Environmental pollution means the presence of any solid, liquid or gaseous substance which is injurious to the environment. In presences of such concentration as may be or tend to be injurious to the environment. Environmental pollution means the presence in the environment of any other environmental pollution.
- The Hazardous substances mean any substance or preparations which by its physio-chemical properties or handling, is liable to cause harm to human beings, other living organisms, property or the environment.
PROVIDES POWER TO THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT FOR THE PURPOSE OF
- Improving and protecting the quality of the environment.
- Preventing and controlling the pollution.
- Restriction carrying on of any industry in a specific area.
- Planning and execution of a nationwide program for creating awareness through education, programs, media for prevention of environmental.
- Laying down standards for quality like emission standards for gases and waste water pollution from industries or factory and other organizations
- Checking by analyzing or monitoring manufacturing processes and substances.
- Laying down procedures and safeguards prevention and or control of accidents and hazardous operations which may cause environmental pollution.
- Establish and recognizing environment laboratories.
- Preparation of standard codes, guides, manuals and other materials for education, prevention, control river related to environmental awareness and environmental pollution control.
THE MOST IMPORTANT FUNCTION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT UNDER THIS ACT
- Standards of quality of water, air or soil for various areas purposes.
- The prohibition and restrictions on the handling of hazardous substances in certain areas.
- Issuing of notice for inspection of any premises.
- Maximum allowable limits for emission of environmental pollution.
- Where is the emission or discharge of environmental pollution in excess of the prescribed standards due to any accidents which may cause environmental pollution and providing for remedial measures for such accident cases.
- Bengal Smoke Nuisance Act, 1905 was the first breakthrough. Later, Water Pollution Act, 1953 prevented Maharashtra.
- The Indian Parliament passed water prevention and control of pollution Act, 1974 in march 23rd 1974, Control Board for Prevention and Control of Water Pollution (CBPCWP) was constituted in September 1974. The Air Prevention and Control of Pollution Act, came on 16th May 1981. The environment protection Act was finally promulgated on 23rd May 1986.
- The Air Act, 1981 was amended in 1987 in which noise was included as an air pollution. The water act 1974, amended in 1988 gives more power to the CPCB.